(fl. 1129-48)

Troubadour, born in Gascony; he became one of the most famous of the older generation of troubadours. Somewhat unusually, he was not of aristocratic descent and his patrons included William X of Aquitaine and Alfonso VII of Castile. Also unusually for a troubadour he was a mysoginist, and he initiated the 'trobar clos' style, a cryptic poetic idiom. More than forty of his poems survive, but only four of the melodies, including the famous Crusade song Pax in nomine Domini,which probably dates from 1137.

See: Transcriptions of Troubadour Melodies By W. D. Snodgrass From Lark in the Morning: The Verses of the Troubadours

IIA: Troubadours, Trouvères and Minnesingers