Italian composer. The brother of Giovanni Francesco Anerio, he sang as chorister and adult falsettist in various Roman churches, including the Cappella Giulia under Palestrina. He succeeded Palestrina as composer to the Papal chapel in 1594, and also worked at the English College. He collaborated with Soriano on the 1614 revision of the Graduale, and published seven volumes of motets and spiritual and secular madrigals; much more church music exists in manuscript. Though his style closely resembles Palestrina's, he gradually assimilated new ideas, such as word painting, Venetian-style polychoral effects, and the use of the basso continuo.